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Biggs (1978) learning approaches and academic achievement
时间:2011-5-4 下午 10:11:14,点击:0

Biggs’ (1978) learning approach model defined three learning styles – surface, deep, and achieving approaches. A learner with a surface approach tends to reproduce what is taught to meet the minimum requirement. A learner with a deep approach aims to understand what is learned. A learner with an achieving approach inclines to maximize his/her learning performance. Concerning this model, even though there are three styles, the deep and achieving approaches can be put into one category based on previous research (e.g., Zhang, 2000). Therefore, Bigg’s (1978) model is clarified as a one-dimensional model in the present review. Like Witkin’s (1964) FDI construct, this model has been widely investigated in connection with the issue of academic achievement across cultures and across educational levels (e.g., Albaili, 1997; Bernardo, 2003; Cano, 2005; Rodriguez, 2009; Shokri, Kadivar, Farzad, & Sangari, 2007; Zhang, 2000). In general, consistent evidence for close associations of the styles defined by this intellectual style model with achievement has been empirically generated. Among the three learning approaches, the achieving approach is often associated with higher academic achievement, while the surface learning approach is related to lower academic grades. The deep approach, sometimes but not always, shows positive influence on academic achievement (e.g., Zhang, 2000). Such a conclusion has been demonstrated at both secondary (e.g., Cano, 2005) and higher educational (e.g., Bernardo, 2003; Shokri et al., 2007) levels, and validated in different cultural contexts including the United Arab Emirates (Albaili, 1997), Australia (Biggs, 1988), China (Drew & Watkins, 1998), Philippines(Bernardo, 2003), Spain (Cano, 2005), and the USA (Zhang, 2000).

Biggs’ learning approaches are often examined along with other psychological variables, such as personality and motivation, and taken as a mediating variable between these classical variables and academic achievement (e.g., Albaili, 1997; Cano, 2005; Shokri et al., 2007). For instance, Shokri et al. (2007) found that the indirect effect of openness, conscientiousness,and agreeableness on academic achievement through the deep-learning approach was significant and positive while the indirect effect of conscientiousness and openness on academic achievement through the surface-learning approach was significant and negative. Cano (2005) suggested that the relationship between epistemological beliefs and academic achievement is mediated by approaches to learning. In addition, some authors also explored the incremental validity of learning approaches to academic achievement beyond other variables. For instance, Bernardo (2003) found that the deep and achieving approaches were positively related to academic achievement, even when the effects of school ability and prior academic achievement were controlled.

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From Weiqiao Fan & Yunfeng He (2011). Intellectual Styles and Academic Achievement. In Zhang, L. F., Sternberg, R. J., & Rayner, S. (Eds.) (2011). Handbook of Intellectual Styles: Preferences in Cognition, Learning, and Thinking. Springer Publishing Company: New York.

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