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Key Ideas of Piaget
时间:2011-4-23 下午 09:23:10,点击:0

Piaget's Key Ideas

Adaptation What it says: adapting to the world through assimilation and accommodation
Assimilation The process by which a person takes material into their mind from the environment, which may mean changing the evidence of their senses to make it fit.
Accommodation The difference made to one's mind or concepts by the process of assimilation.
Note that assimilation and accommodation go together: you can't have one without the other.
Classification The ability to group objects together on the basis of common features.
Class Inclusion The understanding, more advanced than simple classification, that some classes or sets of objects are also sub-sets of a larger class. (E.g. there is a class of objects called dogs. There is also a class called animals. But all dogs are also animals, so the class of animals includes that of dogs)
Conservation The realisation that objects or sets of objects stay the same even when they are changed about or made to look different.

Decentration

The ability to move away from one system of classification to another one as appropriate.

Egocentrism The belief that you are the centre of the universe and everything revolves around you: the corresponding inability to see the world as someone else does and adapt to it. Not moral "selfishness", just an early stage of psychological development.
Operation The process of working something out in your head. Young children (in the sensorimotor and pre-operational stages) have to act, and try things out in the real world, to work things out (like count on fingers): older children and adults can do more in their heads.
Schema (or scheme) The representation in the mind of a set of perceptions, ideas, and/or actions, which go together.
Stage A period in a child's development in which he or she is capable of understanding some things but not others

Stages of Cognitive Development

Stage Characterised by
Sensori-motor
(Birth-2 yrs)
Differentiates self from objects

Recognises self as agent of action and begins to act intentionally: e.g. pulls a string to set mobile in motion or shakes a rattle to make a noise

Achieves object permanence: realises that things continue to exist even when no longer present to the sense (pace Bishop Berkeley)

Pre-operational
(2-7 years)
Learns to use language and to represent objects by images and words

Thinking is still egocentric: has difficulty taking the viewpoint of others

Classifies objects by a single feature: e.g. groups together all the red blocks regardless of shape or all the square blocks regardless of colour

Concrete operational
(7-11 years)
Can think logically about objects and events

Achieves conservation of number (age 6), mass (age 7), and weight (age 9)

Classifies objects according to several features and can order them in series along a single dimension such as size.

Formal operational
(11 years and up)
Can think logically about abstract propositions and test hypotheses systemtically

Becomes concerned with the hypothetical, the future, and ideological problems

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